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Prolactin and growth hormone stimulation of lactation in mice requires thyroid hormones.

TitleProlactin and growth hormone stimulation of lactation in mice requires thyroid hormones.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1999
AuthorsCapuco AV, Kahl S, Jack LJ, Bishop JO, Wallace H
JournalProc Soc Exp Biol Med
Date Published1999 Sep
KeywordsAnimals, Animals, Newborn, Body Weight, Female, Ganciclovir, Growth Hormone, Iodide Peroxidase, Lactation, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, Prolactin, Thymidine Kinase, Thyroid Hormones, Thyroidectomy, Thyroxine

This experiment tested the hypothesis that thyroid hormones are essential for a milk production response to growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL). Prior to breeding, female transgenic mice expressing the herpes simplex type-I thymidine kinase in the thyroid were treated with ganciclovir to ablate thyroid follicular cells. To provide for normal gestation, thyrocyte-ablated mice were supplied thyroxine (T4) in drinking water (0.2 microgram/ml) until 7 days before parturition. Litter size was adjusted to 9 pups, hormone administration began on Day 2 of lactation, and mice were sacrificed on Day 12. There were 5-6 mice in each of 7 treatments that included nonablated controls, thyrocyte-ablated controls, and thyrocyte-ablated mice treated with T4, GH, PRL, GH + T4, and PRL + T4. Thyroxine was administered in drinking water, and GH and PRL (20 microgram/d) were administered by subcutaneous injection. Compared with thyrocyte-ablated controls, litter weight gain was unaffected when dams were treated with GH, PRL, or T4 alone. However, when dams were treated with GH or PRL in combination with T4, litter weight gain increased 13% compared with thyrocyte-ablated controls and 18% compared with GH or PRL-treated mice. Concentration of T4 in serum of pups averaged 62 ng/ml and did not differ among treatments. Concentration of T4 in serum of dams averaged 76 ng/ml when T4-treated. Thyroxine 5'-deiodinase (5'D), the enzyme that converts T4 to triiodothyronine, was quantitated in liver, kidney, and mammary gland. Quantity of 5'D was lower in liver and kidney of thyrocyte-ablated dams without T4 than in respective tissues of mice treated with T4, and there was no effect of GH or PRL. However, in mammary gland, 5'D was increased by treatment with GH, PRL, or T4. Data show that thyroid hormones are necessary for a galactopoietic response to GH and PRL and demonstrate a unique organ-specific regulation of 5'D by galactopoietic hormones.

Alternate JournalProc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.
PubMed ID10460696