|Title||Phenotypic and functional characterization of macrophages with therapeutic potential generated from human cirrhotic monocytes in a cohort study.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||Moore JK, Mackinnon AC, Wojtacha D, Pope C, Fraser AR, Burgoyne P, Bailey L, Pass C, Atkinson A, Mcgowan NWA, Manson L, Turner ML, Campbell JDM, Forbes SJ|
|Date Published||2015 Sep 2|
BACKGROUND AIMS: Macrophages have complex roles in the liver. The aim of this study was to compare profiles of human monocyte-derived macrophages between controls and cirrhotic patients, to determine whether chronic inflammation affects precursor number or the phenotype, with the eventual aim to develop a cell therapy for cirrhosis.
METHODS: Infusion of human macrophages in a murine liver fibrosis model demonstrated a decrease in markers of liver injury (alanine transaminase, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase) and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-β, α-smooth muscle actin, phosphatidylserine receptor) and an increase in markers of liver regeneration (matrix metalloproteinases [MMP]-9, MMP-12 and TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis). CD14+ monocytes were then isolated from controls. Monocytes were matured into macrophages for 7 days using a Good Manufacturing Practice-compatible technique.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the mean number of CD14+ monocytes isolated from cirrhotic patients (n = 9) and controls (n = 10); 2.8 ± SEM 0.54 × 10(8) and 2.5 ± 0.56 × 10(8), respectively. The mean yield of mature macrophages cultured was also not significantly different between cirrhotic patients and controls (0.9 × 10(8) ± 0.38 × 10(8), with more than 90% viability and 0.65 × 10(8) ± 0.16 × 10(8), respectively. Maturation to macrophages resulted in up-regulation of a number of genes (MMP-9, CCL2, interleukin [IL]-10 and TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis). A cytokine and chemokine polymerase chain reaction array, comparing the control and cirrhotic macrophages, revealed no statistically significant differences.
CONCLUSIONS: Macrophages can be differentiated from cirrhotic patients' apheresis-derived CD14 monocytes and develop the same pro-resolution phenotype as control macrophages, indicating their suitability for clinical therapy.