|Title||Essential and overlapping roles for laminin alpha chains in notochord and blood vessel formation.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2006|
|Authors||Pollard SM, Parsons MJ, Kamei M, Kettleborough RNW, Thomas KA, Pham VN, Bae M-K, Scott A, Weinstein BM, Stemple DL|
|Date Published||2006 Jan 1|
|Keywords||Animals, Blood Vessels, Cell Movement, Endothelial Cells, Laminin, Mutation, Neovascularization, Physiologic, Notochord, RNA, Messenger, Zebrafish, Zebrafish Proteins|
Laminins are major constituents of basement membranes and have wide ranging functions during development and in the adult. They are a family of heterotrimeric molecules created through association of an alpha, beta and gamma chain. We previously reported that two zebrafish loci, grumpy (gup) and sleepy (sly), encode laminin beta1 and gamma1, which are important both for notochord differentiation and for proper intersegmental blood vessel (ISV) formation. In this study we show that bashful (bal) encodes laminin alpha1 (lama1). Although the strongest allele, bal(m190), is fully penetrant, when compared to gup or sly mutant embryos, bal mutants are not as severely affected, as only anterior notochord fails to differentiate and ISVs are unaffected. This suggests that other alpha chains, and hence other isoforms, act redundantly to laminin 1 in posterior notochord and ISV development. We identified cDNA sequences for lama2, lama4 and lama5 and disrupted the expression of each alone or in mutant embryos also lacking laminin alpha1. When expression of laminin alpha4 and laminin alpha1 are simultaneously disrupted, notochord differentiation and ISVs are as severely affected as sly or gup mutants. Moreover, live imaging of transgenic embryos expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in forming ISVs reveals that the vascular defects in these embryos are due to an inability of ISV sprouts to migrate correctly along the intersegmental, normally laminin-rich regions.
|Alternate Journal||Dev. Biol.|